Hammer reshaping


The above hammers are from the midrange of the piano, a little bit above middle C. The treble range of the piano consists of trichords, meaning that the sound of each note is the result of the hammer striking three strings tuned to the same pitch; this is the reason for the three grooves in the hammers shown above.


These hammers are from the high treble range, getting closer to the right side of the piano. I didn’t take any pictures of the hammers moving in the direction of the bass, regrettably. In the upper part of the bass register where the strings are wound with copper coil and become increasingly thick as the pitch gets lower, the sound is produced by striking two strings, called a bichord. The lowest notes, how many depends on the particular piano, are produced from a single string and are called unachords.


A hammer never strikes the strings the same way twice, it’s just not possible. There’s no way to touch a piano key with the exact same pressure or velocity between any two attacks, there are subtle movements with the action parts that can cause the hammer attack to vary slightly, and vibrating strings are a perpetually moving target.


The insides.

The past few days have been spent reading up on the mechanics of the piano and taking apart the spinet to get a better look. I’m going to spend a bit of time doing some general maintenance and cleaning, but mostly want to study the action and all of its moving parts to get a better understanding of how this whole thing really works.


Found a veritable dust storm under the keys, along with a few stale peanuts and a sticker. The floor of the cabinet was only slightly more photographable, and unnecessarily so. There was in fact very little area on the piano, inside or out, that wasn’t covered in dust or some amount of unknown residue.


The keys have no physical damage, but the key tops are pretty badly stained. Scrubbing them with a little water and vinegar mixture removed the greasy feel, but the only fix for the stains will be to replace the tops. The sharp keys fair slightly better, but could stand replacing or touching up the paint.


The soundboard itself is in good shape, but is coming unglued from the frame around the edges on both sides of the piano. The image shows the seam from the inside just below the plate on the treble side, at just about halfway up. This can be glued again, but figuring out how to clamp the two pieces together is going to be a little tricky; not sure yet, but likely will have to attach a temporary block to the floor or to the plate somehow.


The hammers have excessive grooves from striking the strings, somewhat viewable in the above image. The grooves mean that the hammers are not really making consistent contact with the strings, affecting the quality of sound. This is first on the to-do list this week, sanding and reshaping the hammers so that the contact point is flat, but without losing the round shape. The dampers are worn as well, with a few strings that continue to ring a little after the dampers have fallen; still investigating how to fix that.


The key bed cleaned up well enough. The felt punchings that are on the pins on the front and balance rail are worn, flattened and hardened against the wood, as well as the long strip on the back rail; those will be replaced at some point. There is felt everywhere in the piano, all inside the action, and where the hammers and dampers meet the strings. Pretty much any moving part that comes into contact with any other part has felt on one or both contact points. Worn felts are one of the many possible reasons for unwanted noises, various mechanical problems, and for the quality of sound produced.



It doesn’t add up.

It would probably be a bit ridiculous to think that I should need to explain why I haven’t posted anything here in almost a year; would be best to just get back to it I suppose.

I’ve recently acquired a Cable-Nelson spinet. It’s in reasonably good shape, was a fair price, and based on a not-so-thorough investigation of the serial number, is most likely from the mid-1960s.

This piano is sort of a project. While it’s completely suitable for practicing, the primary purpose is to facilitate an ongoing but ultimately unrequited fascination with tuning, repair, and maintenance.

There’s still some doubt as to whether this is the right instrument, whether it’s worth the effort and the mostly nominal financial investment that might require. I have a running list of potential repairs to make, but I’m not yet convinced that it will hold a tune or not, and equally unwilling to say that I’m even qualified to make that distinction; not yet.

Which is of course to say that before I blame the instrument for any flaws begat by the unforgiving hands of time, or on the woeful neglect of any countless number of previous caretakers, it would serve us both that I spend substantially more time with the hammer and pins.

I’m hoping to get back to writing here on a somewhat regular basis. There is certainly no shortage of thoughts rolling around the brain these days, especially in regards to temperament and the like.

I titled this post It doesn’t add up for a reason, but one that might be best saved for another day. In previous posts, I was pretty obsessed with graphics, images, videos and such, but I don’t have much ambition for that any longer; nor the time or energy.

completed harmonic circle

Harmonic Function: What you need to know (part 1)

In this post, we’re going to look at how to use the circle of 5ths as a guide for determining where a chord wants to move and why it wants to move there. Having a good grasp of this concept at a basic level will be helpful later on when incorporating more complex chords and in understanding modulation.

I’ll be using roman numerals and chord symbols to explain how this works, as well as the common names used to identify a note or chord’s position in the harmonic hierarchy. The image below contains all the information you’ll need to know, but we’ll be looking at it in a completely different order in the process. We’re going to see that the distance between notes and chords when considering how they function is much greater than when we think of them according to their position in a scale.

basic harmonic language

Tonic and Dominant

Everything will begin and end with the tonic and nothing gets to the tonic without first passing through the dominant. A general rule for what we’ll be doing is that from where ever we leap to from the tonic, we have to find our way back by moving counterclockwise through each subsequent step along the circle of fifths. This first one is easy, but it’s also the most important.

tonic dominant

For each new function that gets introduced, along with an illustration of how it appears on the circle of 5ths, we’ll also look at how it’s written in a progression using the appropriate roman numerals and chord symbols. I recommend playing through these examples in what ever manner you like and any instrument of your choosing.

tonic dominant progression

The tonic and dominant chords above establish that we are in the key of C, which means that all the chords that follow will reflect that and will not have any accidentals. If you’re going to play these on the piano, that means that all the chords will fall only on white keys; nice and easy.


Now, from the tonic, we’re going to jump a little further to the supertonic. Even though we refer to this as the two chord and its root appears to be directly above the tonic in a scale, this is not how it got its name. The supertonic is named as such because it is a perfect 5th above the dominant, where as the tonic falls a perfect 5th below. So in functional terms, our ‘D’ is actually separated from ‘C’ by the interval of  a 9th, the distance of two perfect 5th, and not a 2nd.


So we leap to the supertonic, but have to pass through the dominant in order to get to the tonic. This progression is usually referred to as a ii-V-I (two-five-one) and is frequently used in jazz music as a means of modulation between keys.

supertonic progression


The further we get, we begin to see more similarities between chords. As we move next from the tonic to the submediant, we see that they have two notes in common. Even though the root from one to the other might look like a 6th, or a 3rd in its inversion, the functional distance is now three perfect 5ths from the tonic.


With each jump from the tonic, we’re extending the progression further along the circle of 5ths. We’re also strengthening the resolve of the tonic and its role as the tonal center, as if the further away we go, the more momentum and determination there is to end up there. This progression can be referred to as a six-two-five-one.

submediant progression fix

And for its name, where the prefix super implied something above, sub implies below. The submediant is located a perfect 5th below our next chord.


The mediant, like the submediant before it, also shares two notes with the tonic; but not the same two. The relative distance between the mediant and the tonic is only a 3rd, or a 6th in its inversion, but it’s a much further harmonic distance when looking at them on the circle of 5ths. Although not perfectly, the mediant gets its name because it falls between the tonic and dominant.


Also called a three-six-two-five, this progression is commonly used in jazz as a way to create an extended ‘outro’ to a tune. Because the mediant shares two notes with the tonic, it’s able to retain the same sense of key but with less finality. Also called a turn-around, this progression only resolves to the tonic following the final passing of the dominant chord; it can go on for a quite a long time.

mediant progression

Leading tone

The chord built on the leading tone is the only diminished triad we’ll find in all of this mess. But we’ve also already seen it, though slightly disguised; it makes up the upper half of the dominant seventh chord. In fact, its the diminished 5th interval that makes the dominant chord so dominant. On its own, it’s the only triad in a major key where the 5th is not perfect. 

leading tone

In sound and in name, the root of this triad is leading to the tonic. As the last note of an ascending major scale, it’s a name that is well-deserved. As a triad, and in the grand scheme of harmonic function, however, the leading tone has to find the tonic by descending according to its place on the circle of 5ths just as all the others do.

leading tone progression

You may be inclined to think otherwise about the leading tone, but it’s not the furthest that one of our chords has to travel before reaching the tonic; that distinction can go to the next and final chord.


As the prefix in its name suggests, the subdominant is located a perfect 5th below the tonic. It’s not related to the tonic in the same way the other chords are. While we could say that all the other chords belong to the tonic key, we could not say that about the subdominant. It would be much more accurate to say that the tonic belongs to the subdominant key instead. We’ll get into more detail about that in the future, but even looking at where the subdominant falls on the circle of 5ths should begin to raise some questions as to how it fits in with the others.


After falling to the subdominant, then its straight across to the leading tone to continue the descent of perfect 5ths  that eventually resolves back to the tonic one last time. And it’s worth mentioning now that just as the mediant lies in between the dominant and tonic, so to does the submediant to the tonic and the subdominant.

subdominant progression


Everything we’ve done here can and should be learned for all the other major keys. We tend to think that ‘C’ always has to be at the top of the circle of 5ths, but to help in visualizing these progressions it might be a good idea to draw the circle of 5ths with other notes in the upper most position instead.

Like I mentioned at the beginning of this post, understanding this concept is the key to understanding more complex progressions and modulations. In other words, this is not the only way to get around the circle of 5ths.